This contains notes for paper-ish documents that I read.

## 1 Evolution/Complexity

CLOSED: [2019-06-12 Wed 00:46]

CUSTOM_ID: bearman2002networks
YEAR: 2002
AUTHOR: Bearman, Peter and Moody, James and Faris, Robert


This was a really nice read. I suspect it's not that nice for insiders though. Anyway, this presents a way to create case (in social sciences, a group of interconnected events specifying causalities of some sort) using a few tricks from network science.

Something a little counter intuitive for me was this idea that only robust nets (let's coin a better term) are important since they carry on and are the only meaningful things when you look back. I don't know enough but probably there are two ways of looking at something like a historical event.

1. What actually happened. I believe happenstances play roles here but shouldn't drive derivations of general rules of thumb.
2. What happens, taken out as a general, most probable (?), rule. The paper focuses on this piece by presenting ways of finding non chancy causes of events.

The problem is, I don't know which is more important to know about.

### 1.2READ The causes of evolvability and their evolution

CLOSED: [2019-01-15 Tue 00:54]

CUSTOM_ID: payne2018causes
YEAR: 2018
AUTHOR: Payne, Joshua L and Wagner, Andreas


A very recent review on the subject with a bunch of experimental results. It talks about three "major causes of evolvability":

1. Phenotype heterogeneity
2. Robustness

And

Whether they often evolve because they confer evolvability remains a particularly challenging open question.

CLOSED: [2019-01-06 Sun 16:01]

CUSTOM_ID: pigliucci2008evolvability
YEAR: 2008
AUTHOR: Pigliucci, Massimo


Barring for the various definitions of evolvability, we look at evolvability as some sort of hyperparametrically derived quantity. These hyperparameters define the phylogenic space the search will continue on in the future, therefore there are the usual two arguments for evolution of evolability in the selection setting:

1. as a side effect
2. targeted (sliding towards teleology)

Since this is a survey/opinion, there are not much technicalities here.

CLOSED: [2018-12-27 Thu 10:38]

CUSTOM_ID: wagner2007robustness
YEAR: 2007
AUTHOR: Wagner, Andreas


Here we put up definitions for robustness and evolvability for sequences (genotype) and structures (phenotype). The main conclusion says that these two values are negatively correlated for genotype, but they support each other in case of phenotype. There are a few quantitative results on the setting of RNA sequences and the structures they form.

The question I am interested in is, how much can this be generalized to arbitrary levels in arbitrary systems? The key property needed to get this working is:

…even though structure robustness increases modestly with structure frequency, this increase is much smaller than the vast increase in the number of different structures accessible found near a much larger neutral network.

which gives

…the populations with the highly robust phenotype are more diverse, and this increased diversity is much greater than the decreased diversity around any one sequence.

CLOSED: [2018-12-15 Sat 01:28]

CUSTOM_ID: masel2010robustness
YEAR: 2010
AUTHOR: Masel, Joanna and Trotter, Meredith V


A kind of review of the ideas behind evolutionary robustness. I got a few pointers and terminology to follow from this paper.

### 1.6READ How learning can guide evolution

CLOSED: [2018-11-11 Sun 17:32] DEADLINE: <2018-11-11 Sun>

CUSTOM_ID: hinton1987learning
YEAR: 1987
AUTHOR: Hinton, Geoffrey E and Nowlan, Steven J


Simulation of a minimalistic system for explaining the idea behind the searching power of evolution + learning. Look here for an argument against the specific example taken.

### 1.7READ Coevolution to the edge of chaos: coupled fitness landscapes, poised states, and coevolutionary avalanches

CLOSED: [2018-09-24 Mon 01:20]

CUSTOM_ID: kauffman1991coevolution
YEAR: 1991
AUTHOR: Kauffman, Stuart A and Johnsen, Sonke


This one uses the NK model to experiment with coevolution. The main idea is that you can couple one NK landscape to another using a factor similar to K, called C, which defines how much the other affects this guy. Sounds like a reasonable model to represent the essence of coevolving species. An important hint that we get is that if a metadynamics is present to select the value of K, then that moves it to an attractor state where changes in the system cause avalanches resembling the sandpile model from bak1988self.

### 1.8READ Computation at the edge of chaos: phase transitions and emergent computation

Custom_ID: langton1990computation
AUTHOR: Langton
JOURNAL: Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena
YEAR: 1990
VOLUME: 42
PAGES: 12--37


The question here focuses on how to get rules capable of computation in CAs. Specifically, we are looking at environments which characterize rules that allow:

1. Storage of information
2. Transmission
3. Interaction between the above two

Intuitively, as the rule's output entropy increases, we move from a very simple output (more storage) to output with randomness (more transmission). In between these two, lies the region with the right amount of signal and noise with very large transients and this is where most of the interesting events take place.

An interesting idea involves the definition of $$\lambda$$ parameter (that helps in categorizing the rules) which is basically a discrete probability distribution for the range of mapping function.

### 1.9 Self-organized criticality

Custom_ID: bak1988self
AUTHOR: Bak, Tang \& Wiesenfeld
JOURNAL: Physical review A
YEAR: 1988
VOLUME: 38
PAGES: 364


### 1.10READ Revisiting the edge of chaos: Evolving cellular automata to perform computations

Custom_ID: mitchell1993revisiting
AUTHOR: Mitchell, Hraber \& Crutchfield
YEAR: 1993


The edge of chaos idea is pretty popular and used to explain many phenomena. A short article criticizing that is here. This is one of the papers that tried to debunk (kind of) an experiment (packard1988adaptation; this was in my reading list for a long time) which claimed that evolving (in the GA sense) a CA to solve computational problems gyrate it towards the edge of chaos.

It's pretty easy to see the issue since a solution to a specific problem (they took majority classification) is going to have a specific λ and that's going to be what that is, in spite of where the critical λ lies.

Other than that, this paper has some nice explanations and insights for the results from GA. One neat trick that I haven't seen much (though I haven't seen much) is of keeping the number of elites high and changing the evaluation function on each generation. This looks like a more practical way to use GAs in evaluation over real data set. I also like the trick where you stop at a variable number of generations to avoid getting a rule which gets the right answer by alternating between 0s and 1s.

### 1.11READ Optimization by Self-Organized Criticality

Custom_ID: hoffmann2018optimization
AUTHOR: Hoffmann \& Payton
JOURNAL: Scientific reports
YEAR: 2018
VOLUME: 8
PAGES: 2358


I believe it is not using SoC in the strict sense. The key is the generation of test patterns. Using the sandpile model, we get a reasonable exploration/exploitation trade offs. Also, two avalanches are less likely to occur on overlapping patches (I am going by hunches on this so can be wrong) so it also provides a more coordinate descent-ish behavior than the regular random patch thing. Not sure if we can say that SoC is specifically helping here.

There are two things. First is that this is better than the random approach (consider random patch since only that is fairly comparable). This probably needs a lot more test cases or some theoretical justification.

Second is about the optimality of the sandpile approach. How about other non 1/f distributions? I don't know which generating mechanisms can be employed to get the test patterns but fishing around a bit tells me that this purity of distribution is not that justified (consider for example the recent broido2018scale). The point being: if you fix an annealing schedule for stimulated annealing based on some natural observation, that doesn't:

1. create a parameter-less solver, and
2. justify the natural observation to be the optimal

All said, I liked the thought of a random object (?) generator which does better than the regular approach in the general case. If there indeed is such a generator, this could work as an off-the-shelf technique replacing uniform random search.

### 1.12 At the edge of chaos: Real-time computations and self-organized criticality in recurrent neural networks

Custom_ID: bertschinger2005edge
AUTHOR: Bertschinger, Natschl\"ager \& Legenstein
JOURNAL:
YEAR: 2005
PAGES: 145--152


## 2 AI/ML

### 2.1READ Gmail Smart Compose: Real-Time Assisted Writing

CLOSED: [2020-04-29 Wed 23:39]

CUSTOM_ID: andrew2019gmail
YEAR: 2019
AUTHOR: Andrew Dai and Benjamin Lee and Gagan Bansal and Jackie Tsay and Justin Lu and Mia Chen and Shuyuan Zhang and Tim Sohn and Yinan Wang and Yonghui Wu and Yuan Cao and Zhifeng Chen


### 2.2READ Dialog Methods for Improved Alphanumeric String Capture

CLOSED: [2020-03-29 Sun 13:21]

CUSTOM_ID: peters2011dialog
YEAR: 2011
AUTHOR: Peters, Doug and Stubley, Peter


Presents a way for dialog level collection of alpha numeric strings via an ASR. Two main ideas:

1. Skip listing over n-best hypothesis across turns (attempts)
2. Chunking and confirming pieces one by one

CLOSED: [2020-03-01 Sun 13:09]

CUSTOM_ID: wu2019self
YEAR: 2019
AUTHOR: Wu, Jiawei and Wang, Xin and Wang, William Yang


The self-supervision signal here is coming from a model which tries to predict whether a provided tuple of turns is in order or not. Connecting this as the discriminator in generative-discriminative dialog systems they find better results.

### 2.4READ The unreasonable effectiveness of data

CLOSED: [2020-03-01 Sun 13:09]

CUSTOM_ID: halevy2009unreasonable
YEAR: 2009
AUTHOR: Halevy, Alon and Norvig, Peter and Pereira, Fernando


### 2.5READ Learning from Dialogue after Deployment: Feed Yourself, Chatbot!

CLOSED: [2020-02-09 Sun 21:07]

CUSTOM_ID: hancock2019learning
YEAR: 2019
AUTHOR: Hancock, Braden and Bordes, Antoine and Mazare, Pierre-Emmanuel and Weston, Jason


This is an approach to collect supervision signal from deployment data. There are three tasks for the system (which is a chat bot doing ranking on candidate responses):

1. Dialogue. The main task. Given the turns till now, the bot ranks which response to utter.
2. Satisfaction. Given turns till now, last being user utterance, predict whether the user is satisfied.
3. Feedback. After asking for feedback from the user, predict user's response (feedback) based on the turns till now.

The models have shared weights, mostly among task 1 and 3.

### 2.6READ A credit assignment compiler for joint prediction

CLOSED: [2020-02-05 Wed 12:51]

CUSTOM_ID: chang2016credit
YEAR: 2016
AUTHOR: Chang, Kai-Wei and He, He and Ross, Stephane and Daume III, Hal and Langford, John


This talks about an API for framing L2S style search problems in style of an imperative program which allows for two optimizations:

1. memoization
2. forced path collapse, getting losses without going to the last state

Main reduction that happens here is to a cost-sensitive classification problem.

### 2.7READ Learning language from a large (unannotated) corpus

CLOSED: [2020-01-19 Sun 13:16]

CUSTOM_ID: vepstas2014learning
YEAR: 2014
AUTHOR: Vepstas, Linas and Goertzel, Ben


Introductory paper on the general approach used in learn. The idea is to learn various generalizable syntactic and semantic relations from unannotated corpus. The relations are expressed using graphs sitting on top of link grammar and meaning text theory (MTT). While the general approach is sketched out decently enough, there are details to filled in various steps and experiments to run (as of the writing in 2014).

On another note, the document is a nice read because of the many interesting ways of looking at various ideas in understanding languages and going from syntax to reasoning via semantics.

CLOSED: [2020-01-11 Sat 22:49]

CUSTOM_ID: sleator1995parsing
YEAR: 1995
AUTHOR: Sleator, Daniel DK and Temperley, Davy


Came to here via opencog's learn project. I have a patchy information about formal grammars so this was also a nice perspective setup. Overall a link grammar defines connectors on left and right side of a word with disjunctions and conjunctions incorporated which then link together to form a sentence, under certain constraints.

This specific paper shows the formulation and creates a parser for English, covering many (not all) linguistics phenomena.

### 2.9READ Deep Learning-Based Telephony Speech Recognition in the Wild.

CLOSED: [2020-01-11 Sat 22:49]

CUSTOM_ID: han2017deep
YEAR: 2017
AUTHOR: Kyu J. {Han} and Seongjun {Hahm} and Byung-Hak {Kim} and Jungsuk {Kim} and Ian R. {Lane}


Details on CAPIO's call transcription system for 'in the Wild' data. A few nice bits of practical information if you are working on something similar. Specially the one about adaptation where even 10h of data gave them 5 percent point jump (base trained on switchboard) on real data.

### 2.10READ SpecAugment: A Simple Data Augmentation Method for Automatic Speech Recognition.

CLOSED: [2020-01-11 Sat 22:45]

CUSTOM_ID: zoph2019specaugment
YEAR: 2019
AUTHOR: Barret {Zoph} and Chung-Cheng {Chiu} and Daniel S. {Park} and Ekin Dogus {Cubuk} and Quoc V. {Le} and William {Chan} and Yu {Zhang}


From the abstract:

The augmentation policy consists of warping the features, masking blocks of frequency channels, and masking blocks of time steps.

Kaldi has this supported as a layer (applied on spectrograms) in it's nnet3 framework.

### 2.11READ Phoneme Level Language Models for Sequence Based Low Resource ASR

CLOSED: [2019-12-15 Sun 15:21]

CUSTOM_ID: dalmia2019phoneme
YEAR: 2019
AUTHOR: Siddharth {Dalmia} and Xinjian {Li} and Alan W {Black} and Florian {Metze}


They try using a phoneme language model (PLM) for speech recognition decoding. There are two important pieces here. They train a single multilingual PLM (mapping all languages to IPA) and find it doing good across languages (from Babel dataset). Then they plug this in a CTC style model for decoding and find that doing better than CLM (character LM) and WFST (I am assuming this is an LG.fst) in low data setting.

### 2.12READ Bootstrap estimates for confidence intervals in ASR performance evaluation

CLOSED: [2019-12-15 Sun 15:21]

CUSTOM_ID: bisani2004bootstrap
YEAR: 2004
AUTHOR: M. {Bisani} and H. {Ney}


The idea used in compute-wer-bootci. Useful for comparing modifications in speech systems when the deltas are not convincingly different.

### 2.13READ Your Classifier is Secretly an Energy Based Model and You Should Treat it Like One

CLOSED: [2019-12-15 Sun 15:18]

CUSTOM_ID: grathwohl2019classifier
YEAR: 2019
AUTHOR: Will Grathwohl and Kuan-Chieh Wang and Jörn-Henrik Jacobsen and David Duvenaud and Mohammad Norouzi and Kevin Swersky


They take a regular classifier, pick out logits before softmax and try to formulate an energy based model able to give $$P(x, y)$$ and $$P(x)$$. The formulation itself is pretty simple with the energy function being $$E(x) = −LogSumExp_yf_\Theta(x)[y]$$. Final loss sums cross entropy (for discriminative part) and negative log likelhood of $$P(x)$$ approximated using SGLD. Check out the repo here.

Although the learning mechanism is a little fragile and needs work to be generally stable, the results are neat.

### 2.14READ Speaker diarization with lstm

CLOSED: [2019-11-16 Sat 14:31]

CUSTOM_ID: wang2018speaker
YEAR: 2018
AUTHOR: Wang, Quan and Downey, Carlton and Wan, Li and Mansfield, Philip Andrew and Moreno, Ignacio Lopz


d-vector + spectral clustering.

### 2.15READ Utterance-level Aggregation for Speaker Recognition in the Wild

CLOSED: [2019-11-15 Fri 19:56]

CUSTOM_ID: xie2019utterance
YEAR: 2019
AUTHOR: Xie, Weidi and Nagrani, Arsha and Chung, Joon Son and Zisserman, Andrew


Approached from more of a background reading perspective. Main idea is to use NetVLAD, GhostVLAD style (don't know much about these at the moment) aggregation across time instead of regular temporal average pooling.

### 2.16READ pyannote.metrics: A Toolkit for Reproducible Evaluation, Diagnostic, and Error Analysis of Speaker Diarization Systems.

CLOSED: [2019-11-13 Wed 14:32]

CUSTOM_ID: bredin2017pyannote
YEAR: 2017
AUTHOR: Hervé {Bredin}


Useful read for knowing metrics used in segmentation and diarization.

### 2.17READ Fully Supervised Speaker Diarization

CLOSED: [2019-11-12 Tue 21:22]

CUSTOM_ID: zhang2018fully
YEAR: 2018
AUTHOR: Aonan {Zhang} and Quan {Wang} and Zhenyao {Zhu} and John {Paisley} and Chong {Wang}


A relatively recent work which has two benefits:

1. Allows unspecified number of speakers in an audio
2. Learns the clustering over speaker embeddings in a supervised way

I am not totally clear on the parameter estimation part during my first pass but the code, which is here, should help.

### 2.18READ Diarization is Hard: Some Experiences and Lessons Learned for the JHU Team in the Inaugural DIHARD Challenge.

CLOSED: [2019-11-12 Tue 00:18]

CUSTOM_ID: sell2018diarization
YEAR: 2018
AUTHOR: Sell, Gregory and Snyder, David and McCree, Alan and Garcia-Romero, Daniel and Villalba, Jes{\'u}s and Maciejewski, Matthew and Manohar, Vimal and Dehak, Najim and Povey, Daniel and Watanabe, Shinji and others


I have been looking over this to get started and know about diarization a bit. Although I got a few concepts and terminologies, this assumes you already know your way around. There are probably better pieces if you want to clear up the basics. Here is a nice resource by the way.

### 2.19READ On the Cross-lingual Transferability of Monolingual Representations

CLOSED: [2019-10-29 Tue 11:56]

CUSTOM_ID: mikel2019cross
YEAR: 2019
AUTHOR: Mikel Artetxe and Sebastian Ruder and Dani Yogatama

1. The idea of learning embeddings to fit in with a set of layers trained for another language can mostly be used in other kinds of models too.
2. There was an interesting degradation in Hindi (+ Turkey) with positional embedding on XQuAD (recoverable with added adapters). I am wondering whether this is because

transferring syntactic abstractions is more challenging than semantic abstractions.

### 2.20READ Towards end-to-end spoken language understanding

CLOSED: [2019-10-14 Mon 00:15]

CUSTOM_ID: serdyuk2018towards
YEAR: 2018
AUTHOR: Serdyuk, Dmitriy and Wang, Yongqiang and Fuegen, Christian and Kumar, Anuj and Liu, Baiyang and Bengio, Yoshua


Simple results (plain intent-ish classification) on going directly from audio features to intent. An important decision, I believe, is to have bigger semantic chunks to recur on since audio is very sample heavy.

### 2.21READ wav2vec: Unsupervised Pre-training for Speech Recognition.

CLOSED: [2019-10-14 Mon 00:15]

CUSTOM_ID: schneider2019wav2vec
YEAR: 2019
AUTHOR: Steffen {Schneider} and Alexei {Baevski} and Ronan {Collobert} and Michael {Auli}


Not exactly what I assumed an x2vec would be with x = audio. Anyway, the idea is to have a language model-ish system for audio frames which acts as the featurizer for downstream tasks like, here, speech recognition. The gains are decent. There are a few good points covered in between which drive decisions while working with audio. Though I wonder what were the reasons for not going with spectrums1 if they are replacing log-mel input in regular speech recognizer.

### 2.22READ Snuba: automating weak supervision to label training data

CLOSED: [2019-10-14 Mon 00:14]

CUSTOM_ID: varma2018snuba
YEAR: 2018
AUTHOR: Varma, Paroma and R{\'e}, Christopher


This is a logical extension of ratner2017snorkel. Instead of users writing heuristics, we go one level farther and just provide primitives (semantically meaningful feature chunks). There are three components:

1. Synthesizer that does heuristic creation based on certain labelled dataset.
2. A pruner that picks good heuristics, based on certain definitions and constraints.
3. A verifier which closes the loop by deciding when to stop, what to feed to synthesizer etc.

While there are obvious upgrades in how we are doing everything, the general architecture reminds me much of classical rule learning systems like LCS.

### 2.23READ Distributed representations of sentences and documents

CLOSED: [2019-10-09 Wed 01:48]

CUSTOM_ID: le2014distributed
YEAR: 2014
AUTHOR: Le, Quoc and Mikolov, Tomas


Document vectorization paper following the general series of word2vec ones.

CLOSED: [2019-10-09 Wed 01:45]

CUSTOM_ID: mignan2019one
YEAR: 2019
AUTHOR: Mignan, Arnaud and Broccardo, Marco


Got from r/MachineLearning. Title kind of says what is there in the paper. Even then, I would recommend skimming it just because the model is drastically simpler than the neural-net they are comparing to.

### 2.25READ Generalized end-to-end loss for speaker verification

CLOSED: [2019-10-09 Wed 01:43]

CUSTOM_ID: wan2018generalized
YEAR: 2018
AUTHOR: Wan, Li and Wang, Quan and Papir, Alan and Moreno, Ignacio Lopez


Leaving the speaker verification part aside, this presents a way to train embeddings with membership constraints so that items for one identity are grouped together and are easy to separate from the rest.

### 2.26READ The Secret Sharer: Evaluating and testing unintended memorization in neural networks

CLOSED: [2019-10-09 Wed 01:31]

CUSTOM_ID: carlini2019secret
YEAR: 2019
AUTHOR: Carlini, Nicholas and Liu, Chang and Erlingsson, {\'U}lfar and Kos, Jernej and Song, Dawn


This tries to formalize the problem of unintended memorization in neural networks. Notice the emphasis. There are many different ways to interpret memorization and the authors here are only concerned about cases where (say) something like a private sequence gets sucked in the memory and Mallory is able to extract such pieces with reasonable common attacks.

Important is their metric, called exposure, which kind of defines how easy it is to get a memorized piece of information out by playing around with the model API.

### 2.27READ Transfer learning from speaker verification to multispeaker text-to-speech synthesis

CLOSED: [2019-10-09 Wed 01:20]

CUSTOM_ID: jia2018transfer
YEAR: 2018
AUTHOR: Jia, Ye and Zhang, Yu and Weiss, Ron and Wang, Quan and Shen, Jonathan and Ren, Fei and Nguyen, Patrick and Pang, Ruoming and Moreno, Ignacio Lopez and Wu, Yonghui and others


Real-Time-Voice-Cloning project pointed me here. Since I don't know much about speech synthesis at the moment, this also was a nice intro to the current modular breakdown. Three components are involved here:

1. Discriminative speaker encoder. Trained on US English search voice data.
2. Synthesizer. Takes text to spectrogram, conditioned on speaker encoding.
3. Vocoder. Takes spectrograms to audio. Wavenet based.

### 2.28READ What’s your ML Test Score? A rubric for ML production systems

CLOSED: [2019-10-09 Wed 01:19]

CUSTOM_ID: breck2016s
YEAR: 2016
AUTHOR: Breck, Eric and Cai, Shanqing and Nielsen, Eric and Salib, Michael and Sculley, D


This is a good guide to follow if you work in a production ML setting.

### 2.29READ Mixing dirichlet topic models and word embeddings to make lda2vec

CLOSED: [2019-09-25 Wed 00:30]

CUSTOM_ID: moody2016mixing
YEAR: 2016
AUTHOR: Moody, Christopher E


While I like the results, I am wondering which pieces were useful, which were not and how do things compare to other techniques.

### 2.30READ Who needs words? lexicon-free speech recognition

CLOSED: [2019-09-15 Sun 22:33]

CUSTOM_ID: likhomanenko2019needs
YEAR: 2019
AUTHOR: Likhomanenko, Tatiana and Synnaeve, Gabriel and Collobert, Ronan


Took it from the wav2letter++ repo. Nothing very specific to comment on. Mostly a results paper. I like how well ConvLM does though.

### 2.31READ wav2letter++: The fastest open-source speech recognition system

CLOSED: [2019-09-15 Sun 22:30]

CUSTOM_ID: pratap2018wav2letter
YEAR: 2018
AUTHOR: Pratap, Vineel and Hannun, Awni and Xu, Qiantong and Cai, Jeff and Kahn, Jacob and Synnaeve, Gabriel and Liptchinsky, Vitaliy and Collobert, Ronan


Although it might not be as friendly, I like the focus on architecture and types based guarantees in general. Kaldi just feels annoying at times.

### 2.32READ Snips voice platform: an embedded spoken language understanding system for private-by-design voice interfaces

CLOSED: [2019-09-15 Sun 22:26]

CUSTOM_ID: coucke2018snips
YEAR: 2018
AUTHOR: Coucke, Alice and Saade, Alaa and Ball, Adrien and Bluche, Th{\'e}odore and Caulier, Alexandre and Leroy, David and Doumouro, Cl{\'e}ment and Gisselbrecht, Thibault and Caltagirone, Francesco and Lavril, Thibaut and others


Document on how snips does their SLU in general. A nice thing that I didn't expect was focus on the dynamic LM part. It makes sense to make updates easy and quick on-premise as compared to keeping things mostly frozen.

### 2.33READ Supervising strong learners by amplifying weak experts

CLOSED: [2019-08-20 Tue 00:32]

CUSTOM_ID: christiano2018supervising
YEAR: 2018
AUTHOR: Christiano, Paul and Shlegeris, Buck and Amodei, Dario


This is the Iterated Amplification paper. General idea is that harder problems can't be solved directly in a stable way so we want to use expert assistance for breaking down things in pieces. Then an interactive process lets the to-be trained system learn from both the ways things are broken and answer constructed. Since this is one of the initial works, the overall framework might change a little.

Simple algorithmic examples are provided. It will be interesting to see attempts towards the candidate problems which are beyond human intelligence. Haven't really followed the thread so don't know if there already is something done in this direction.

CLOSED: [2019-08-20 Tue 00:31]

CUSTOM_ID: daume2009frustratingly
YEAR: 2009
AUTHOR: Daum{\'e} III, Hal


Tells you how far good insights go. The paper is really simple to follow so not writing anything here.

CLOSED: [2019-08-20 Tue 00:29]

CUSTOM_ID: schwartz2019green
YEAR: 2019
AUTHOR: Schwartz, Roy and Dodge, Jesse and Smith, Noah A. and Etzioni, Oren


A noble idea to push for.

I sometime feel bad that things which are good inherently, need to be pushed out in a gamified way for actions to be taken.

### 2.36READ Probing Neural Network Comprehension of Natural Language Arguments

CLOSED: [2019-07-22 Mon 23:53]

CUSTOM_ID: niven2019probing
YEAR: 2019
AUTHOR: Niven, Timothy and Kao, Hung-Yu


Was up on r/ml. The abstract is short and clear enough. The idea is that ARCT tasks have simple statistical cues which contribute in a major way for whatever SOTA we are getting. One you balance them out, even strong models like BERT take big hits and go to essentially random-ish performance.

CLOSED: [2019-07-22 Mon 23:51]

CUSTOM_ID: garrod2007alignment
YEAR: 2007
AUTHOR: Garrod, Simon and Pickering, Martin J


Picked up this because I wanted to get general background of alignment as a linguistic term. A few points I pulled out:

• Common ground (stuff believed to be shared) is stricter than alignment which only refers to the information that happens to be shared.
• Ways of alignment:
1. via beliefs about one's interlocutor
2. via imitation
3. via agreements between interlocutors
4. via feedback
5. via physical co-presence

### 2.38READ Statistical user simulation with a hidden agenda

CLOSED: [2019-07-22 Mon 23:46]

CUSTOM_ID: schatzmann2007statistical
YEAR: 2007
AUTHOR: Schatzmann, Jost and Thomson, Blaise and Young, Steve


This was pointed to by papangelis2019collaborative as a way of modeling users. Two good ideas here:

1. Stack based agenda and the general decomposition of the process.
2. Tractability piece where we try to put assumptions on various factors like transition probabilities etc.

### 2.39READ Collaborative Multi-Agent Dialogue Model Training Via Reinforcement Learning

CLOSED: [2019-07-22 Mon 23:42]

CUSTOM_ID: papangelis2019collaborative
YEAR: 2019
AUTHOR: Papangelis, Alexandros and Wang, Yi-Chia and Molino, Piero and Tur, Gokhan


This is the paper which came out with Uber's plato's release. Here is what you need to know really:

Using DSTC2 as seed data, we trained NLU and NLG networks for each agent and let the agents interact and learn online optimal dialogue policies depending on their role (seeker or provider).

### 2.40READ Building a conversational agent overnight with dialogue self-play

CLOSED: [2019-07-07 Sun 19:48]

CUSTOM_ID: shah2018building
YEAR: 2018
AUTHOR: Shah, Pararth and Hakkani-T{\"u}r, Dilek and T{\"u}r, Gokhan and Rastogi, Abhinav and Bapna, Ankur and Nayak, Neha and Heck, Larry


Nice ideas in here plus insights for practical systems like the following,

Covering complex interactions is important when developing datasets to benchmark research aimed towards building human-level dialogue systems. However, we argue that for consumer-facing chatbots, the primary aim is reliable coverage of critical user interactions.

The generated dataset is here by the way.

### 2.41READ Entity-Aware Language Model as an Unsupervised Reranker

CLOSED: [2019-07-05 Fri 00:05]

CUSTOM_ID: rasooli2018entity
YEAR: 2018


A few nice ideas. One was to autogenerate n-best list for a certain true text using phonetic similarity and subsequent LM reranking. Overall idea is to somehow introduce the relation between potential entities in the text while ranking alternatives. The exact approach looks a little too much and I would like to know more about how and why the decisions were taken even though whatever they did sounds intuitive. Backstories people.

CLOSED: [2019-07-02 Tue 22:52]

CUSTOM_ID: welling2011bayesian
YEAR: 2011
AUTHOR: Welling, Max and Teh, Yee W


The update equation here is a minibatched SGD's with a normal noise factor $$\eta$$:

$\Delta\theta_{t} = \frac{\epsilon_{t}}{2} \left(\nabla \log p (\theta_{t}) + \frac{N}{n} \sum_{i=1}^{n} \nabla \log p (x_{ti} | \theta_{t}) \right) + \eta_{t}$

Main results involve showing that, when the rate $$\epsilon$$ decays following certain properties, the noise due to minibatch dominates in the initial phase giving us normal SGD while the $$\eta$$ noise dominates in the later phase which basically lets us sample from the posterior of $$\theta$$.

The question of when to say we are in the sampling phase (so that we can start collecting samples, taking the SGD phase as burn-in) is also answered though I am missing some statistical tooling at the moment to appreciate it.

### 2.43READ Learning by analogy: Formulating and generalizing plans from past experience

CLOSED: [2019-07-02 Tue 22:52]

CUSTOM_ID: carbonell1983learning
YEAR: 1983
AUTHOR: Carbonell, Jaime G


The summary overall is solving problems $$\equiv$$ learning to solve problems. This is probably in general applicable to all analogy based methods but here the idea is also to apply learnings from one problem/domain to others. Two key components are involved here:

1. Apply a generic problem solver (in the classical planning sense) to higher order problems like reducing a past solution to a new solution for another problem.
2. A learning system which helps in learning parameters for a memory table which indexes actions based on the effects they produce.

Like in many older papers a lot of deliberations from here too are probably now parametrized and learned.

### 2.44READ Large-Scale Long-Tailed Recognition in an Open World

CLOSED: [2019-06-14 Fri 00:19]

CUSTOM_ID: liu2019large
YEAR: 2019
AUTHOR: Liu, Ziwei and Miao, Zhongqi and Zhan, Xiaohang and Wang, Jiayun and Gong, Boqing and Yu, Stella X


Here we are grouping the following three tasks, their losses, metrics etc. in one:

1. Regular (a little imbalanced) classification
2. Few shot classification
3. Out of Domain classification

Even though the system is a full network, there are planned components in there. Two are noteworthy:

1. A distance metric, reachability in paper, goes to tell how different an instance is as compared to seen examples. This helps in task 2 vs 3.
2. Memorized feature infusion which comes into picture in task 1 vs 2. Here we put more weights for features from a memory which helps in reducing the bias towards regular classes with large number of training samples.

### 2.45READ Parallelizing wfst speech decoders

CLOSED: [2019-06-12 Wed 00:55]

CUSTOM_ID: mendis2016parallelizing
YEAR: 2016
AUTHOR: Mendis, Charith and Droppo, Jasha and Maleki, Saeed and Musuvathi, Madanlal and Mytkowicz, Todd and Zweig, Geoffrey


I didn't get everything here mostly because of the split between AM and LM phase. Will probably look over with more background. Overall, the idea is to parallelize viterbi as you would think but keeping inter thread communication very low by clumping actions which are mostly independent given their thread's other actions. This clumping gains by knowledge of the graph structure which is affected by the domain; in this case using the information about triphones.

### 2.46READ Model-based testing without models: the TodoMVC case study

CLOSED: [2019-06-04 Tue 10:52]

CUSTOM_ID: bainczyk2017model
YEAR: 2017
AUTHOR: Bainczyk, Alexander and Schieweck, Alexander and Steffen, Bernhard and Howar, Falk


This is a case study of a general purpose UI testing approach. Here are the general steps:

1. You define a set of actions that can be done.
2. Learn a mealy model (makes sense for a lot of UIs) based on exploration using those states (I am not very sure I am using the correct phrasing for this learning)
3. Compare with reference, among siblings etc. Probably also fuzz.

Even though there is not much in this specific paper itself, I got a general overview of the scene and references to a few primary sources.

### 2.47READ Morphnet: Fast & simple resource-constrained structure learning of deep networks

CLOSED: [2019-05-24 Fri 23:12]

CUSTOM_ID: gordon2018morphnet
YEAR: 2018
AUTHOR: Gordon, Ariel and Eban, Elad and Nachum, Ofir and Chen, Bo and Wu, Hao and Yang, Tien-Ju and Choi, Edward


In a single line (from the appendix) what is happening is:

iterative process of shrinking via a sparsifying regularizer and expanding via a uniform multiplicative factor

The regularizer is an $$L1$$ over the batch norm γ parameters for neurons.

### 2.48READ Learning reductions that really work

CLOSED: [2019-05-22 Wed 00:01]

CUSTOM_ID: beygelzimer2016learning
YEAR: 2016
AUTHOR: Beygelzimer, Alina and Daum{\'e}, Hal and Langford, John and Mineiro, Paul


I was looking into the general ideas behind Vowpal Wabbit and got to this document which probably summarizes the whole concept of learning reductions.

An important question is how general and fundamental this whole idea really is. Of course computational benefits are a major plus, but reductions also feel very elegant.

### 2.49READ Unsupervised Grounding of Plannable First-Order Logic Representation from Images

CLOSED: [2019-05-12 Sun 14:10]

CUSTOM_ID: asai2019unsupervised
YEAR: 2019
AUTHOR: Asai, Masataro


This is a attempt to have interpretable representation from a neural network that can be used with planing systems. The abstract should tell you what problems are getting solved. The keys ideas are the following:

1. First Order State Auto Encoder (FOSAE) where the latent space represents FOL predicates based on certain input objects and specified hyperparameters.
2. Extensive use of Gumbel-Softmax to impose unitary credit assignment.

I am not very sure how different this is from similar recent works since I haven't followed them. But the main difference looks like focusing on discrete representations and planning capabilities of PDDL-ish tools. Interpretability comes as a side effect.

Since the predicates here are anonymous as of now, an interesting piece of future work involves a bit of supervision to put names on things.

### 2.50READ Detecting spacecraft anomalies using lstms and nonparametric dynamic thresholding

CLOSED: [2019-05-11 Sat 23:22]

CUSTOM_ID: hundman2018detecting
YEAR: 2018
AUTHOR: Hundman, Kyle and Constantinou, Valentino and Laporte, Christopher and Colwell, Ian and Soderstrom, Tom


I picked this paper mostly randomly while looking around for the general scene of anomaly detection. The general framework looks like this:

1. Train a model on the sequence
2. Predict the future while collecting errors
3. Identify anomalies using a non-parametric heuristic
4. Post-hoc pruning of false positives based on identified anomalies

Even though their method has less knobs to worry about, it still does not feel auto-pilotish while reading the document. Well, that is supposed to happen I guess.

### 2.51READ Snorkel: Rapid training data creation with weak supervision

CLOSED: [2019-05-06 Mon 23:49]

CUSTOM_ID: ratner2017snorkel
YEAR: 2017
AUTHOR: Ratner, Alexander and Bach, Stephen H and Ehrenberg, Henry and Fries, Jason and Wu, Sen and R{\'e}, Christopher


This one has bunch of practical upgrades on the original data programming paper. Two major things here involve:

1. deciding when to use the generative model (as compared to voting)
2. tackling correlation

On a side note, while looking at the results you might find that even majority voting (which is very easy to implement) might not be that bad if you are a little careful.

### 2.52READ Bootstrapping Conversational Agents With Weak Supervision

CLOSED: [2019-05-06 Mon 23:50]

CUSTOM_ID: mallinar2018bootstrapping
YEAR: 2018
AUTHOR: Mallinar, Neil and Shah, Abhishek and Ugrani, Rajendra and Gupta, Ayush and Gurusankar, Manikandan and Ho, Tin Kam and Liao, Q Vera and Zhang, Yunfeng and Bellamy, Rachel KE and Yates, Robert and others


I like there method of mass tagging. Other than that, this is a practical implementation of a snorkel like system.

### 2.53READ Hidden technical debt in machine learning systems

CLOSED: [2019-04-25 Thu 00:21]

CUSTOM_ID: sculley2015hidden
YEAR: 2015
AUTHOR: Sculley, David and Holt, Gary and Golovin, Daniel and Davydov, Eugene and Phillips, Todd and Ebner, Dietmar and Chaudhary, Vinay and Young, Michael and Crespo, Jean-Francois and Dennison, Dan


It is important to create team cultures that reward deletion of features, reduction of complexity, improvements in reproducibility, stability, and monitoring to the same degree that improvements in accuracy are valued.

Paying down ML-related technical debt requires a specific commitment, which can often only be achieved by a shift in team culture. Recognizing, prioritizing, and rewarding this effort is important for the long term health of successful ML teams.

There are other things too, but I specifically like the clippings above since they are about things that are very likely to be missed.

CLOSED: [2019-04-21 Sun 01:15]

CUSTOM_ID: vlasov2018few
YEAR: 2018
AUTHOR: Vlasov, Vladimir and Drissner-Schmid, Akela and Nichol, Alan


The idea is to put all the involved pieces in a dialog, i.e. slots, intents and actions, in a space and then match with possible actions to do something. The key idea is to have the items break into compositional pieces before embedding so that a new domain can share along a lot of items and get along well.

### 2.55READ Neural machine translation of rare words with subword units

CLOSED: [2019-04-17 Wed 02:17]

CUSTOM_ID: sennrich2015neural
YEAR: 2015
AUTHOR: Sennrich, Rico and Haddow, Barry and Birch, Alexandra


This is the application of subword (BPE based) on NMT. The results mostly show robustness and better learned handling of OOV stuff.

### 2.56READ SentencePiece: A simple and language independent subword tokenizer and detokenizer for Neural Text Processing

CLOSED: [2019-04-10 Wed 00:53]

CUSTOM_ID: kudo2018sentencepiece
YEAR: 2018
AUTHOR: Kudo, Taku and Richardson, John


A more rewarding read here can be the code in the repository itself since this is just a short documentation on the methods implemented.

### 2.57READ Bpemb: Tokenization-free pre-trained subword embeddings in 275 languages

CLOSED: [2019-04-10 Wed 00:48]

CUSTOM_ID: heinzerling2017bpemb
YEAR: 2017
AUTHOR: Heinzerling, Benjamin and Strube, Michael


This is mostly a report on byte-pair embedding results and comparison with other models. Tracing back to (sennrich2015neural) and the original compression paper (gage1994new) should cover the background.

### 2.58READ Comparison of grapheme-to-phoneme methods on large pronunciation dictionaries and LVCSR tasks

CLOSED: [2019-03-30 Sat 20:07]

CUSTOM_ID: hahn2012comparison
YEAR: 2012
AUTHOR: Hahn, Stefan and Vozila, Paul and Bisani, Maximilian


This is mostly a comparison of statistical g2p models. I think I have a general idea now but looks like there is a lot more to see if I start looking into individual references. A general thread along all these models was the use of a certain alignment (grapheme to phoneme) algorithm to get what are called graphones and then train an ngrams-ish sequence model on them.

### 2.59READ Statistical language modeling for speech disfluencies

CLOSED: [2019-03-26 Tue 00:01]

CUSTOM_ID: stolcke1996statistical
YEAR: 1996
AUTHOR: Stolcke, Andreas and Shriberg, Elizabeth


Got here from srilm's disfluency (DF) LM. The idea is to have a cleanup model which models out certain common DFs, specifically filled pauses, repetitions and deletions. Although there was not much gain, an interesting conclusion comes with filled pauses where the DF model actually increased perplexity. The argument being a filled pause, in most of the cases, linguistically breaks the sentence and so the context behind it is not so useful for what follows.

Since the paper is old and also hints at a bunch of improvements in DF modeling, I guess there might be a more recent reference around.

### 2.60READ SRILM-an extensible language modeling toolkit

CLOSED: [2019-03-26 Tue 00:01]

CUSTOM_ID: stolcke2002srilm
YEAR: 2002
AUTHOR: Stolcke, Andreas


This is an early document on SRILM's design and development. If you are looking for something more in-depth, just download the current tarball.

### 2.61READ A bit of progress in language modeling

CLOSED: [2019-03-20 Wed 19:02]

CUSTOM_ID: goodman2001bit
YEAR: 2001
AUTHOR: Goodman, Joshua T


This has a lot of nice ideas and intuitions behind tricks employed in statistical language models. I will just write out the general topics since it's a long paper (~73 pages for the extended version):

• Skipping
• Clustering
• Caching
• Sentence Mixture Models

At a higher level we get to know about:

• ways of combining
• approaching analysis
• practical issues

### 2.62READ Streaming End-to-end Speech Recognition For Mobile Devices

CLOSED: [2019-03-19 Tue 00:12]

CUSTOM_ID: he2018streaming
YEAR: 2018
AUTHOR: He, Yanzhang and Sainath, Tara N and Prabhavalkar, Rohit and McGraw, Ian and Alvarez, Raziel and Zhao, Ding and Rybach, David and Kannan, Anjuli and Wu, Yonghui and Pang, Ruoming and others


From Google's recent on-device character level Speech Recognition system. There are a bunch of tricks used in the overall system other than the main model itself. A few are:

• parameter quantization (required, of course, for fast computation on mobile device)
• data augmentation using tts for getting numbers, proper nouns etc. right (instead of doing fancy stuff on the model side)

### 2.63READ Rapidly building domain-specific entity-centric language models using semantic web knowledge sources

CLOSED: [2019-03-19 Tue 00:12]

CUSTOM_ID: akbacak2014rapidly
YEAR: 2014
AUTHOR: Akbacak, Murat and Hakkani-T{\"u}r, Dilek and Tur, Gokhan


This is focused on filtering search queries for creating language model. The filtering that works out for them is to (after identifying a domain) go from queries to clicked links then back to queries that went to those links. There are a few other pieces involved but the general shape of narrowing is the same.

### 2.64 The tradeoffs of large scale learning

CUSTOM_ID: bottou2008tradeoffs
YEAR: 2008
AUTHOR: Bottou, L{\'e}on and Bousquet, Olivier


### 2.65READ Abstract meaning representation for sembanking

CLOSED: [2019-03-10 Sun 22:43]

CUSTOM_ID: banarescu2013abstract
YEAR: 2013
AUTHOR: Banarescu, Laura and Bonial, Claire and Cai, Shu and Georgescu, Madalina and Griffitt, Kira and Hermjakob, Ulf and Knight, Kevin and Koehn, Philipp and Palmer, Martha and Schneider, Nathan


I found AMR while looking into a way of breaking from the usual intent/entity based NLU. While they are not perfect, the specification tells you about pieces which should (in elaborate situations) be considered at least for practical computational language understanding.

### 2.66READ Bootstrapping language models for dialogue systems

CLOSED: [2019-03-10 Sun 22:43]

CUSTOM_ID: weilhammer2006bootstrapping
YEAR: 2006
AUTHOR: Weilhammer, Karl and Stuttle, Matthew N and Young, Steve


This is quickly getting domain specific LMs. The idea is to not do a lot of manual (and perfect) text collection but start with simple grammars and get a seed LM using the generated text. Then for more refinements, get a large LM and do sentence selection on in-the-wild data to get sentences with low value of $$PP_{seed} / PP_{large}$$. These sentences and the rejected ones then give two more LMs which can then be interpolated based on a validation set.

Exact steps aside, the idea (other than SLMs on grammar generated data) is to do some sort of sentence selection to augment the seed LM.

### 2.67READ Developing Production-Level Conversational Interfaces with Shallow Semantic Parsing

CLOSED: [2019-01-15 Tue 01:10]

CUSTOM_ID: raghuvanshi2018developing
YEAR: 2018
AUTHOR: Raghuvanshi, Arushi and Carroll, Lucien and Raghunathan, Karthik


Doc on Mindmeld's NLU system.

### 2.68READ Neural text generation from structured data with application to the biography domain

CLOSED: [2019-01-05 Sat 23:22]

CUSTOM_ID: lebret2016neural
YEAR: 2016
AUTHOR: Lebret, R{\'e}mi and Grangier, David and Auli, Michael


From wikipedia info entry (a table) for a person, they generate biographical sentences. The way to condition on the table while doing $$P(w_i | c_{(i-1)})$$ is just indexing into (learnable) embeddings. I was looking for something more insightful though.

### 2.69 Generating exact lattices in the WFST framework

CUSTOM_ID: povey2012generating
YEAR: 2012
AUTHOR: Povey, Daniel and Hannemann, Mirko and Boulianne, Gilles and Burget, Luk{\'a}{\v{s}} and Ghoshal, Arnab and Janda, Milo{\v{s}} and Karafi{\'a}t, Martin and Kombrink, Stefan and Motl{\'\i}{\v{c}}ek, Petr and Qian, Yanmin and others


### 2.70READ Quantifying the value of pronunciation lexicons for keyword search in lowresource languages

CLOSED: [2019-01-27 Sun 23:55]

CUSTOM_ID: chen2013quantifying
YEAR: 2013
AUTHOR: Chen, Guoguo and Khudanpur, Sanjeev and Povey, Daniel and Trmal, Jan and Yarowsky, David and Yilmaz, Oguz


In a single line, while pronunciation dictionary augmentation doesn't help that much in WER of an LVCSR (since the OOV rates are usually low), it helps a lot in Keyword Search.

A few other things to note are the ways to generate pronunciation and two ways to do KWS if you already have an LVCSR system. Not surprisingly, the proxy keyword system doesn't work that well.

### 2.71READ State-of-the-art speech recognition with sequence-to-sequence models

CLOSED: [2018-11-06 Tue 20:52]

CUSTOM_ID: chiu2018state
YEAR: 2018
AUTHOR: Chiu, Chung-Cheng and Sainath, Tara N and Wu, Yonghui and Prabhavalkar, Rohit and Nguyen, Patrick and Chen, Zhifeng and Kannan, Anjuli and Weiss, Ron J and Rao, Kanishka and Gonina, Ekaterina and others


Bunch of improvements on top of the LAS architecture. It feels funny that even in end-to-end systems, we still look for modular presence of components like Language Models. Maybe that helps in adding and justifying heuristics.

### 2.72 Speech recognition with weighted finite-state transducers

CUSTOM_ID: mohri2008speech
YEAR: 2008
AUTHOR: Mohri, Mehryar and Pereira, Fernando and Riley, Michael


Partial notes:

1. Composition: Transitive-ness.
2. Determinization: Removing multiple transitions on same input.
3. Minimization: Compressing to the minimal, equivalent automaton. Done by first weight pushing and then running the classical algorithm.

### 2.73READ Data programming: Creating large training sets, quickly

CLOSED: [2019-05-06 Mon 23:55]

CUSTOM_ID: ratner2016data
YEAR: 2016
AUTHOR: Ratner, Alexander J and De Sa, Christopher M and Wu, Sen and Selsam, Daniel and R{\'e}, Christopher


Main idea is to focus on creating $$O(1)$$ labelling functions on boundless data to get similar asymptotes as compared to labeled data setting.

This same change of focus has another side effect which I agree with:

One of our hopes is that a user without expertise in ML will be more productive iterating on labeling functions than on features.

### 2.74READ Harnessing nonlinearity: Predicting chaotic systems and saving energy in wireless communication

CLOSED: [2018-10-22 Mon 23:48]

CUSTOM_ID: jaeger2004harnessing
YEAR: 2004
AUTHOR: Jaeger, Herbert and Haas, Harald


This is the Echo State Network paper (probably not the original one but sufficiently close). I found it to be a little different than what I had earlier thought about there being separate inputs and outputs.

### 2.75READ Learning to map sentences to logical form: Structured classification with probabilistic categorial grammars

CLOSED: [2018-10-20 Sat 20:58] DEADLINE: <2018-10-16 Tue>

CUSTOM_ID: zettlemoyer2012learning
YEAR: 2012
AUTHOR: Zettlemoyer, Luke S and Collins, Michael


Assuming the title clarifies the goal, there are three basic components here:

1. A parser which takes a sentence $$S$$, a set of categories $$\Lambda$$ and weights over features of the derivation (generated from parsing) $$\theta$$. This then generates logical forms ($$L$$) with certain probabilities.
2. Category generator which takes $$S$$ and its expected logical form $$L$$ to generate the categories needed to parse it to that form.
3. An estimator which, given the training set and a set of categories, updates $$\theta$$ to increase the score of the form getting parsed.

The interesting pieces are the representation of the logical form $$L$$ (using λ calculus) and category generation and pruning. Although the generated categories can be arbitrary, allowing for wrong grammars and such, I believe, it can be made to work better in noisy settings if we generalize parsing and (maybe) the meaning of the structurally rigid categories like $$S/NP$$ using a few tricks.

### 2.76READ A very short introduction to CCG

CLOSED: [2018-10-16 Tue 02:21]

CUSTOM_ID: steedman1996very
YEAR: 1996
AUTHOR: Steedman, Mark


A lambda calculus formulation of verb (function) acts in natural text. Not sure if I can figure out exact advantages as compared to other approaches. This definitely has more appeal to it because of the functional forms and the tooling they pull in with themselves.

### 2.77READ Swoosh: a generic approach to entity resolution

CLOSED: [2018-10-07 Sun 20:23] SCHEDULED: <2018-10-06 Sat>

CUSTOM_ID: benjelloun2009swoosh
YEAR: 2009
AUTHOR: Benjelloun, Omar and Garcia-Molina, Hector and Menestrina, David and Su, Qi and Whang, Steven Euijong and Widom, Jennifer


The main products are optimal algorithms to do ER which minimize the number of calls to the black box functions that actually perform the matching and merging. To do this, we first formalize the ER problem using:

1. Records and features as the data structures
2. Merging and matching functions as the operations

Then we look for certain properties of a particular setting (mostly the effect of merge and match functions). Based on whether a few of these are satisfied (surprisingly trivial functions might not do what you expect of them), we can reduce the number of calls to matching.

### 2.78READ How not to evaluate your dialogue system: An empirical study of unsupervised evaluation metrics for dialogue response generation

CLOSED: [2018-10-13 Sat 17:45] SCHEDULED: <2018-10-06 Sat 15:00>

CUSTOM_ID: liu2016not
YEAR: 2016
AUTHOR: Liu, Chia-Wei and Lowe, Ryan and Serban, Iulian V and Noseworthy, Michael and Charlin, Laurent and Pineau, Joelle


Other than the usuals, it has decent summaries of a few metrics used for sentence similarity.

### 2.79READ Bringing machine learning and compositional semantics together

CLOSED: [2018-10-02 Tue 13:26]

CUSTOM_ID: liang2015bringing
YEAR: 2015
AUTHOR: Liang, Percy and Potts, Christopher


Got pointed to this while going through sippycup. This presents, in a very pedagogical way, a simple framework for ranking semantic parses using supervised learning. The important point is that this framework can be applied to a lot of problems in nlu involving different ways of structuring the logical forms and features.

### 2.80 A decision-theoretic generalization of on-line learning and an application to boosting

Custom_ID: freund1997decision
AUTHOR: Freund \& Schapire
JOURNAL: Journal of computer and system sciences
YEAR: 1997
VOLUME: 55
PAGES: 119--139


## 3 Computing/Programming

### 3.1READ Metaobject protocols: Why we want them and what else they can do

CLOSED: [2019-10-28 Mon 23:08]

CUSTOM_ID: kiczales1993metaobject
YEAR: 1993
AUTHOR: Kiczales, Gregor and Ashley, J Michael and Rodriguez, Luis and Vahdat, Amin and Bobrow, Daniel G


This provides a wider perspective on MOP. Specially the sections on Scheme extension techniques clarified that MOP is a very general way of creating an extension system for something else.

### 3.2READ Reflections on trusting trust

CLOSED: [2019-08-20 Tue 00:42]

CUSTOM_ID: thompson1984reflections
YEAR: 1984
AUTHOR: Thompson, Ken and others


I remember reading this or watching the talk 3-4 years earlier but not understanding what Ken was trying to say. This time it was fine. I like this top blurb:

To what extent should one trust a statement that a program is free of Trojan horses? Perhaps it is more important to trust the people who wrote the software.

CLOSED: [2019-04-17 Wed 02:12]

CUSTOM_ID: hellerstein1997online
YEAR: 1997
AUTHOR: Hellerstein, Joseph M and Haas, Peter J and Wang, Helen J


I was looking into this while looking for prior works that provide streaming results from a database. The idea is to have always available results for aggregation queries like SUM, COUNT etc. along with uncertainty measurements based on the currently sampled tuples. Other than the uncertainty estimation formulations, they presented work on the implementation side of the idea which involves random sampling and various UX niceties.

### 3.4READ Practical type inference based on success typings

CLOSED: [2019-03-31 Sun 20:56]

CUSTOM_ID: lindahl2006practical
YEAR: 2006
AUTHOR: Lindahl, Tobias and Sagonas, Konstantinos


The general idea is to allow all programs that throw no runtime errors. This is specially useful in languages which are philosophically dynamic. I like this approach towards types since programming in a dynamic language involves dropping a lot of so called writer's 'intention' here and there which does not adhere to the static type philosophy.

Not sure if this is one of the firsts (the first for functional languages according to the paper), but these days there are many mainstream dynamic languages adopting such soft typing systems in some form.

CLOSED: [2019-03-19 Tue 00:10]

CUSTOM_ID: tratt2009dynamically
YEAR: 2009
AUTHOR: Tratt, Laurence


A basic and exhaustive intro to dynamic typed languages. Good for beginners.

CLOSED: [2019-03-12 Tue 11:11]

CUSTOM_ID: steele1999growing
YEAR: 1999
AUTHOR: Steele, Guy L


This is originally a talk, I read a pdf version. An interesting thing is the way the talk itself is structured (its vocabulary mostly) exemplifying the same growth mechanism that Guy talks about in relation to languages.

### 3.7READ BlinkDB: queries with bounded errors and bounded response times on very large data

CLOSED: [2019-04-07 Sun 21:57]

CUSTOM_ID: agarwal2013blinkdb
YEAR: 2013
AUTHOR: Agarwal, Sameer and Mozafari, Barzan and Panda, Aurojit and Milner, Henry and Madden, Samuel and Stoica, Ion


I find works like this, and other approximate query processing systems, pretty interesting since their general structures are close to machine learning systems with slightly different metrics to be optimized. This, of course, then provides a lot of food for thought.

So, what BlinkDB does is pretty clear from the title. On the how side, they basically create a bunch of samples (table subsets) based on criterion derived from past queries. The 'key' for samples here are sets of columns involved in the queries' WHERE, HAVING etc. clauses. When asked a query with timing, error requirements, a sample is picked (after some estimation on some data; this is important, since they don't want to put much assumptions on the type of workload) and query runs on that.

Since they are mostly for high scale use cases, these methods are not 'very' visible unless you are into such things. Although, I believe, similar ideas (I specially liked the Online Aggregation thing from 1997) can be put in more commonplace, smaller, systems (or already are there).

### 3.8 Type systems as macros

CUSTOM_ID: chang2017type
YEAR: 2017
AUTHOR: Chang, Stephen and Knauth, Alex and Greenman, Ben


### 3.9 Physics, topology, logic and computation: a Rosetta Stone

Custom_ID: baez2010physics
AUTHOR: Baez \& Stay
YEAR: 2010


### 3.10READ The Genuine Sieve of Eratosthenes

Custom_ID: o2009genuine
AUTHOR: O'NEILL
JOURNAL: Journal of Functional Programming
YEAR: 2009
VOLUME: 19
PAGES: 95--106


This talks about a functional implementation of Sieve of Eratosthenes. Specifically it debunks the following incorrect implementation:

primes = sieve [2..]
sieve (p : xs) = p : sieve [x | x <− xs, x mod p > 0]


Then we see correct functional implementations with neat tricks made possible due to laziness of Haskell. Although slower, there is a list based implementation by Bird mentioned in the Epilogue which is pretty readable (and elegant) and follows very closely the following description:

primes = [2, 3, ...] \ [[p², p²+p, ...] for p in primes]


### 3.11READ Why functional programming matters

Custom_ID: hughes1989functional
AUTHOR: Hughes
JOURNAL: The computer journal
YEAR: 1989
VOLUME: 32
PAGES: 98--107


This is a famous paper and I wanted to see what it focuses on. It's basically about the following two properties and their effect on modularity in functional programmings:

1. Higher order functions
2. Lazy evaluation

The examples are nice and make this is a good read for beginners. Though I suspect there might be better, recent, articles on these topics now.

## 4 Misc

### 4.1READ How to do research at the MIT AI lab

CLOSED: [2020-04-11 Sat 22:10]

CUSTOM_ID: chapman1988research
YEAR: 1988
AUTHOR: Chapman, David


A bit dated but has nice nuggets of wisdom. I like simple pointers like "writing is debugging" which provides a different perspective to the way a few trivial things are done.

Thanks to Jaydeep for pointing me to this.

### 4.2READ How do committees invent

CLOSED: [2019-12-15 Sun 15:19]

CUSTOM_ID: conway1968committees
YEAR: 1968
AUTHOR: Conway, Melvin E


Original paper on Conway's Law. The reasoning used is easy to understand and feels trivial in hindsight but there are nice nuggets scattered in between, like the following, which makes the reading worthwhile:

A manager knows that he will be vulnerable to the charge of mismanagement if he misses his schedule without having applied all his resources.

CLOSED: [2019-01-27 Sun 20:55]

CUSTOM_ID: anderson1972more
YEAR: 1972
AUTHOR: Anderson, Philip W and others


The basic idea is the following:

The main fallacy in this kind of thinking is that reductionist hypothesis does not by any means imply a "constructionist" one.

We are trying to understand that reductionist view is not going to explain everything and that fundamental laws at the lowest level are not going to be the fundamental ones for the higher level ("Psychology is not applied biology…"). A littl0e hierarchy is also presented using examples where our movements across levels results in broken symmetry:

• Crystallinity
• Functional structures
• Regular systems with information like DNA
• Ordering in the time dimension for information processing etc.

So it is not true, as a recent article would have it, that we each should "cultivate out own valley, and not attempt to build roads over the mountain ranges … between the sciences." Rather, we should recognize that such roads, while often the quickest shortcut to another part of our own science, are not visible from the viewpoint of one science alone.

CLOSED: [2018-10-30 Tue 02:34]

CUSTOM_ID: spector2012google
YEAR: 2012
AUTHOR: Spector, Alfred and Norvig, Peter and Petrov, Slav


Mostly about the people being researchers and developers and how it affects various aspects of experiments.

### 4.5READ Machine learning: The high-interest credit card of technical debt

CLOSED: [2018-10-20 Sat 02:33]

CUSTOM_ID: sculley2014machine
YEAR: 2014
AUTHOR: Sculley, D and Phillips, Todd and Ebner, Dietmar and Chaudhary, Vinay and Young, Michael


### 4.6READ Better science through art

CLOSED: [2018-10-12 Fri 23:16] SCHEDULED: <2018-10-06 Sat>

CUSTOM_ID: gabriel2010better
YEAR: 2010
AUTHOR: Gabriel, Richard P and Sullivan, Kevin J


Here are the last few lines which cover what's common between Science and Art and also summarize the document:

• Explore: wander / defamiliarize
• Discover: guess / abduce
• Understand: validate / ask—did you build the right thing?

### 4.7READ Lisp, Jazz, Aikido–Three Expressions of a Single Essence

Custom_ID: verna2018lisp
AUTHOR: Verna
JOURNAL: arXiv preprint arXiv:1804.00485
YEAR: 2018


Okay, this was up on /r/lisp, felt not that much effort to read so I gave it a shot. There are three general aesthetic avenues that the author covers:

1. Conformation
2. Transgression
3. Unification

The general idea is about the similar interplay of these in all the 3 things (Lisp, Jazz & Aikido) and how they end up being a source of pleasure and enlightenment.

From whatever I have felt, things that focus on an act itself (rather than prioritizing the results) end up being like these (well, probably this is obvious).

This paper is a quick read and is not overly philosophical. Maybe that's because one of the focus is on tools that stay out of your way by staying practical (you can see this when the author talks about Common Lisp specifically). Although I must say that I know next to nothing about both Jazz and Aikido so might not have really been able to connect all the pieces.

# Bibliography

• [bak1988self] Bak, Tang & Wiesenfeld. 1988. "Self-organized criticality." Physical review A, 38(1), 364. link. doi.
• [packard1988adaptation] Packard. 1988. "Adaptation toward the edge of chaos." Dynamic patterns in complex systems, 212, 293-301. link. doi.
• [broido2018scale] Broido & Clauset. 2018. "Scale-free networks are rare." arXiv preprint arXiv:1801.03400, , link. doi.
• [ratner2017snorkel] Ratner, Bach, Ehrenberg, Fries, Wu & R\'e. 2017. "Snorkel: Rapid training data creation with weak supervision." Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment, 11(3), 269-282. link. doi.
• [papangelis2019collaborative] @miscpapangelis2019collaborative, Author = Papangelis, Alexandros and Wang, Yi-Chia and Molino, Piero and Tur, Gokhan, Title = Collaborative Multi-Agent Dialogue Model Training Via Reinforcement Learning, Year = 2019, Eprint = arXiv:1907.05507,
• [sennrich2015neural] Sennrich, Haddow & Birch. 2015. "Neural machine translation of rare words with subword units." arXiv preprint arXiv:1508.07909, , link. doi.
• [gage1994new] Gage. 1994. "A new algorithm for data compression." The C Users Journal, 12(2), 23-38. link. doi.

## Footnotes:

1

Might have missed somewhere or there might be mentions in prior works